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APA Style (American Psychological Association): FAQs

Information on understanding and using APA style.

Frequently Asked Questions

APA when information is MISSING

Bible or Classic Work --- how to cite

How do you cite the Bible or other classic works?

Reference list entries are not required when you cite ancient Greek and Roman works or classical religious works. However, in the first text citation, indicate the version of the classic work you used. or also see 6.18 in the Publication Manual of APA 6th e.

"Quote" (Book Chapter:Verse, Translation).

Example: "And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of God" (Romans 12:2, The New King James Version).

Reviewed July 2017


Can't find what I need in the APA publication manual

I can't find the example reference I need in the Publication Manual. What should I do?

In general, a reference should contain the author name, date of publication, title of the work, and publication data. When you cannot find the example reference you need in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format. Sometimes you will need to combine elements of more than one reference format.

CultureVision database --- how to cite

AdventhHealth University has a database called CultureVision, here is a suggestion on how to cite in APA. PLEASE confirm with your professor if this is acceptable. 


Cook Ross Inc. (n.d.). Gender roles [Amish]. Retrieved from

Cook Ross Inc. (n.d.). Mental health issues [Military families]. Retrieved from

Cook Ross Inc. (n.d.). Treatment of pain [Bosnian]. Retrieved from

Creating a Running head & Microsoft Word

How do I format my paper so that the phrase Running head appears on only the first page?

In Microsoft Word 2016:

1.       Open Blank Document.

2.       Go to the INSERT TAB  >>  Header >> Blank

3.       Under Design Tab  >>  Options  >> Check  box  DIFFERENT FIRST PAGE

4.       Type in Running head: (your title in Caps) No more than 40 characters

       Ex: Running head: HOW TO CITE A RUNNING HEAD

5.       Tab over 2 times and go to >> Header & Footer box >> Page Number >> Current Position >> Plain Number

6.       Double click document to close out of Header

7.       Scroll down to page 2 or create a second page by hitting Ctrl & Enter key

8.       Open up Header on 2nd page and type in your title

9.       Tab over 2 times and go to >> Header & Footer >> Page Number>> Current Position>> Plain Number

10.   Close out of the Header

Ebook -- how to cite

How Do You Cite an E-Book (e.g., Kindle Book)?
by Chelsea Lee w/APA June 3,2011

E-books come in a variety of formats (e.g., Kindle, Adobe Digital Editions, EPub, HTML, and more) and can be read on a variety of devices (e.g., e-readers like the Kindle, Nook, and Sony Reader, as well as on personal computers and mobile devices through online portals such as NetLibrary, ebrary, and Google Books). This post shows how to cite any e-book in APA Style.

How to cite... from APA Style Blog

In-Text Citation Chart

Interview -- how to cite

How do you cite an interview? (Section 6.20 Personal Communications, pg. 179)

An interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference to this is provided in the reference list. You may, however, cite the interview within the text as a personal communication.


  • (J. Smith, personal communication, August 15, 2015)
  • J. Smith (personal communication, August, 15, 2015)

Mobile app -- how to cite

No DOI in the article. How to cite.

Some older articles do not have DOIs, if this is the case then APA 6th edition states to list the URL of the journal homepage beginning with "Retrieved from"

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from


Twitter or Facebook -- how to cite


How do you cite Facebook or Twitter?

The APA Style Guide to Electronic References has a section on websites, email lists, and social media. This section includes examples for how to cite Twitter updates and Facebook posts, as well as Twitter and Facebook generally. The section begins on page 34 of the Guide.

Transitioning from MLA to APA

For those use to MLA, here is a comparison between MLA and APA Reference List.

Quoting a reference -- different ways

There are different ways to state a quote when writing your paper. Using the different formats allows more variety within your paper. The examples are taken from the 5th APA Manual. It was nicely shown in this edition, the same format still exists with the 6th edition rules.

The idea is to offer more than one way to state your quote/proof.

Source: 5th edition APA.

Up-to-Date -- how to cite

Webpage w/ no author -- how to cite

How do you reference a web page that lists no author?

When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry:

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from

Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: ("New Child Vaccine," 2001).

Note: Use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation. Articles found on the web, like the example above, are not italicized in the reference entry and are not italicized but enclosed in quotations in the in-text citation, just like a newspaper or magazine article. Reports found on the web would be italicized in the reference list, as in Publication Manual (6th ed.) Examples 31, 32, and 33 on pp. 205–206. They would also be italicized in the in-text citation, just like a book.

(adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2010)